Sunday, July 13, 2008

Gist of the developments related to the Indo-US nuclear deal


Nuclear Deal: A nuclear deal, announced in July, 2005 and finalised in March, 2006, would allow the United States to sell nuclear material to India and it may end India’s nuclear isolation. India is self-sufficient in thorium but possesses a meagre 1% of the global uranium reserves. The deal will help India obtaining a steady supply of uranium required for running the present nuclear programme.

123 agreement: Section 123 of the United States Atomic Energy Act of 1954, titled “Cooperation With Other Nations”, establishes an agreement for cooperation as a prerequisite for nuclear deals between the US and any other nation. Such an agreement is called a 123 Agreement.

Hyde Act: Henry J Hyde United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act of 2006 is the legal framework for a bilateral pact between the United States and India under which the US will provide access to civil nuclear technology and access to nuclear fuel in exchange for International Atomic Energy Agency-safeguards on civilian Indian reactors.

NPT Signatories: Signatories to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) are granted access to civilian nuclear technology from each other as well as nuclear fuel via the Nuclear Suppliers Groups in exchange for International Atomic Energy Agency-verified compliance of the NPT tenets. India, Israel, and Pakistan, however, have not signed the NPT.


  • It will help India meet its rising energy demands by reversing US sanctions, imposed after nuclear tests were carried out by India in 1974 and 1998.
  • India will get access to US civilian nuclear technology.
  • The deal guarantees India fuel supplies for its civilian programme, and allows it to reprocess spent fuel.
  • It could spur India’s economic growth as India’s objective is to increase the production of nuclear power generation from its present capacity of 4,000 MW to 20,000 MW in the next decade.
  • It could usher in a new era of nuclear power in India, freeing the country from heavy dependence on fossil fuels.


The deal ties India’s future foreign and energy policy closely to the US. India will now classify 14 of its 22 nuclear facilities as being for civilian use, and thus open to inspection.


July 2005

Prime Minister Singh and US President George W Bush agree to a civilian nuclear co-operation deal.

March 2006

Two countries agree on India’s plan to separate its civilian and military nuclear reactors.

Dec 2006

US Congress approves the deal. Approvals from Nuclear Suppliers Group, International Atomic Energy Agency and a second time by the Congress are still needed.

Dec 2006

Bush signs the law approved by Congress, which makes changes to the US Atomic Energy Act.

July 2007

The two countries announce finalisation of the deal.

Aug 2007

Text of the bilateral pact, called the 123 agreement, is unveiled.

Aug 2007

Left parties slam the pact and ask the government to suspend it saying it compromises India’s sovereignty and imposes US influence.

July 4, 2008

Samajwadi Party with 39 MPs agree to support the UPA on the deal.

July 8, 2008

Left withdraws support to the UPA; Govt approaches IAEA.

1 Comment:

Anonymous said...

This deal is very important for India.Beause future is based on energy. Country, which will has more energy resources survive

nicolas martin